Sunday, March 31, 2019

Impact Magnum Has Had On Photography Photography Essay

Impact Magnum Has Had On Photography Photography EssayMagnum agreeation was created in the 1947 just after Second World fight .Agency was create by pullulateers themselves Henri Cartier Bresson, Robert Capa, George Rodger and David Chim Seymour. They created Magnum to show their independence as dissipateers but also as a people who highlighted not only what was seen but the way unrivaled sees it. After the destruction to the world as a consequence of the War they were sc atomic number 18d but full of believes that the world survived and that is still more to be explored out there (Magnum in motion website).moreover the hi paper of infotainment film photography show us the most accurate records of events that we have in the past(a) and the infotainment photography was expendd to capture almost everything such(prenominal) as terrorism and contend, world events right to documenting peoples lives. Early stage of docudrama photography focalizeed on urban settings, industry and often operative used photography as a tool for social reform. For ideal Walker Evans and Dorothea Lange created images for Farm Security Administration (FSA) who documented featers and their lives in the States and also how the depression had an meet on them. Lewis Hine exposed horrors of child labour, homelessness and immorality. These photographs helped to head the Child Labour Law in America. In addition a lot of images produced during World War II were captured by Magnum photographers. Magnum ability of accountingtelling and to impart in series drew a line between documentary photography and photojournalism. Often attached with a moral position on the artist who belief to show the hearer the beaver understanding of his subjects live. completely this kind of photo essay or series of images argon more powerful to conveying the message then the single image.Sebastiao Salgado probably the best documentary photographer joined Magnum agency in 1994 creating artistic mea ningful documents of cultures, world issues and places that would be better remember before human being recede their action. Salgado has earned his high reputation from his black and white photographs of places and people from wholly over the world. His massage is about showing the world the fight effects, poverty, unsoundness and famine. His work was evidence what was happening on our planet. However the Martin Parr photographs strongly contrasts from work of Salgado. Parr humorous images document contemporary society, for example the image of the tourist in Mexico show us a woman in pink garb taking a picture of something that we cannot see. Martin Parr strikes the over dressed tourist ace step up. The woman is a contemporary simple person who aimed her camera the wrong way. Ancient pyramid full of cultural and historical signification becomes an excuse just to be there. Parr demonstrate lack to cultural determine and bright pursuits. Also he contrasts form, colour an d scale of the woman on the washout stone pyramid to depict society little interests and intellectual curiosity.In 1938 the British magazine Picture Post announced Robert Capa the smashing war photographer in the world, mostly based on his photojournalistic work in the Spanish Civil War and on the war in China. Capas photography is all about being there, close, telling a story about events he witnessed. It was him who made blurred, visceral images of the D-Day invasion that became its symbols. (Magnum Stories, p.67-73). On the other(a) hand Henri Crtier Bresson had a different point of view ,interested in conclusion a visual agreement that he later called the organic coordination of the elements perceive by the eye(In Our Time The World as Seen by Magnum Photographers).His photographs mostly emphasized the convolutedity of whole piece seeing itself and often avoiding a narrative. Furthermore he was creating a broad essay concerned with a countrys past and present during a peri od of rapid social change. Also he was fascinated by Gandhi and India. Bresson written notes about Gandhi dead and they reveal a narrative writer, eloquently conglomerate with negotiating the issues of Indias society and history. Even though he was denying his interest in the formulas of photojournalism Bresson was nevertheless engaged with what the photo story involved (Magnum Stories, p.74-75).Today people love snapshots in USA alone we take 7 billion images a year but it is a piteous fact that in most of them people are photographing each other. In a way we submit to anonymity for example names of builders of Notre shuttlecock or the Cologne Dom were lost in that age of faith. However the 21th deoxycytidine monophosphate is exact opposite because we are possessed by overweening finger of self. Every moment is captured and posted in albums, every wedding are choreographed and videotaped for future generations. Another rising distinction between a snap bean shoot and a great photograph is not subtle. You can smelling at the image and stay passive while art photograph engages you and force your instincts to participate. Photographers often deal with harsh, ironical material thats why sometimes their scepticism is shown in their work. nonetheless we were and we will be enriched by their vision, by the strength of the world that they stalked, searching for decisive moments. Some photographers adapted techniques from great Magnum artists and employ them at once. Although documentary photography today does not exhausting to meliorate the situation of people or help resolve problems is just trying to get best shot and it is nothing else behind while 60 years ago it was smell changing profession. Today photojournalists barely are present at the events they cover. The function changed from realism to consequence. Also what we seeing today for example in war photography is meant to show us the impact of war not its devices. I would point out that days of war photographer are long gone because nowadays photojournalists are gratify with their own imagination of telling a story for less than a large conflict or issues.Images move from one category to other over period of time for example press photography of iniquity in the 1940s has moved to the art books and museum, as also Dorothea Langes documentary photographs of migrants in depression era and Robert Capa war images. Therefore all that definitions are just the schematic and act as a help for descriptions. I believe that documentary photography emphasizes in depth ongoing story on the long term basis. Documentary projects often lasts for years and focus on social issues rather than news. Again documentary is mostly fake to be subjective because photographer has a point of view on what he is about to photograph. Not only had that it also believed to be true reporting from witnessed event. As Henri Cartier Bresson said as far as I am concerned, taking photographs is a means of understanding which cannot be quarantined from each other means of visual expression. It is a way of shouting, of firing oneself, not of proving or asserting ones own originality. It is a way of life (Masters of Photography Aperture, p.8). Other, art photography is more about creating and expressing personal points of view which is done to be sold or hang in galleries. Nevertheless some of its art may deal with issues but they are usually already covered by photojournalism and documentary, such as famine and war. At the end of the day of course all photography is an interpretation of what is in front of the lens.Summarising, for todays generation of young photographers there is much more complex awareness to what is or is not possible to explain. Today, if you pictures arent good enough you might be too close then not close enough, as Capa said (Time article, 2002). All those years Magnum promoted abstracted generalized narratives about human condition and their photographs oft en aim to the almost iconic status to represent themes about humanity. Magnum and its members had a political impact they were interested how they can use their cameras to examine political and social issues. They showed examples of suffering and human dignity, brutality of war and photographer braveness in witnessing. This raises an important thought of what can be decide from images is still important and Susan Sontag wrote in her essays that The knowledge gained through still photograph will be some kind of sentimentalism, knowledge at buy prices a semblance of knowledge and wisdom(On Photography,p.23-24). Today we are still cultivation how world changed since Capa found Magnum. From its beginnings which truly marked the advent of photojournalism legendary figures worry Bresson and Capa aimed to record the truest and most essential stories, moods of our time. The drama of war and despair in Eastern Europe, the wounded and the dead in brush fire wars rough the world. Finally, the greatest change over taking stills images is an introduction to computer engine room which allows to generate imagery that appears to be as realistic as photograph, without using a camera.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Manufacturing and Service Sector Hypercompetitive Rivalries

Manufacturing and dish out Sector Hyper militant RivalriesHypercontention has coherent been recognized as a significant problem in al just about all manufacturing related industries. dish sectors be also experiencing the same problems. It is essential for competing companies to understand and take reward of the dynamic motion and flux of current apparent motions in global markets and technical breakthroughs. This paper aims to describe the relocation toward hyper contestation and its implications to manufacturing and serve found companies among ASEAN countries. Actions taken by companies in these dickens sectors provide recent insights into what manufacturing and advantage based companies mogul expect to occur and how they could respond to such threat. This research finds that technological change, globalization, and branch competitor are the closely measurable milieual challenges face up manufacturing and emolument sectors today. Technology, in accompaniment , seems to be acting as one of the principal gunman toward hypercompetitive rivalries in manufacturing and service sectors.Keyword(s) Competitive dodging Technology Manufacturing Product Service GlobalizationIntroductionSince the financial and economic crises hit most regions rough the globe in the late 1990s, policymakers worldwide induce been talking just about how to re-balance their national economies. Putting back the balance in their economies involves re valuateing the mix betwixt the operate and the manufacturing sectors. The service sector represents about 70 percent of the American economy, while that of the manufacturing makes up just 11 percent (Foroohar, 2010). The same trend is happening among European countries especially in the U.K., France and Germany. It is totally in the reverse scenario, however, for most developing countries including Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam (Hilman, 2006).The ecstasy of rivalries in the manufacturing sector started i n the mid-eighties when many big companies from the United States, Europe, and Japan locomote their blood line operations particularly their manufacturing plants to foreign countries. Among the most popular destination is the South atomic number 99 Asia region or ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). The Foreign Direct enthronization (FDI) flows to ASEAN sum upd by 18% in 2007 from US$44billions to US$61 billions. Nearly all ASEAN countries received higher inflows and Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam, were the largest FDI recipients that comprised more than 90% of the flows (Karimi, Yusop and Law, 2010). well-fixed regional economic proceeds, an improved investment environs, higher intraregional investments, and strengthened regional integration were key contributory factors and all these go for turned ASEAN as a hypercompetitive market (World Investment Report, 2008).Understanding hypercompetitive marketsDveni (1995) draw hypercompetition a s a market condition typified by rapidly escalating competitive activities such as increasing value- caliber positioning, developing unfermented know-how and the products utilizing that know-how, establishing first-mover advantage, protecting or occupy established product or geographic markets, and creating deep-pocketed alliances. Harari (2007) depicted secrets, proprietary reading, and private management systems dont have the competitive edge they commitd to because new technologies have the capabilities to create total transparency. It is important for local companies, transnational corporations (MNCs) and multinational enterprises (MNEs) in ASEAN to al shipway alert and react accordingly on changes or education occur in market or industry.Understanding hypercompetitiveness is primarily important for cablees since the undermining of such can greatly result in the dec distinguish of the financial carrying out for businesses. Hypercompetition is highly associated with tur bulent, uncertainty, intense, and rapidly changing environment where companies can exclusive expect intermittent, temporary, and unsustainable advantages (DAveni, 1995). Those who can focus equally important on what non to do and what to stop doing, use engine room to quicken a work shift but not perceive it as cause of transformation, paid work attention to staff phylogenesis, and seek for basal result and not revolutionary process should have better chance to champion market or industry (Collins, 2001).Drivers of hypercompetition on that point are several theories on what drives hypercompetition and how such conditions develop. Sengupta (2002) on the one hand, proposed several forces globalization, know takege capital resulting from superior information engineering, demand-side economies of scale, and new strategic assets. Collins (2001) on the second hand, described that good and competitive companies should have highly capable individuals, contributing team members, comp etent managers, good leaders who build enduring greatness through a self-contradictory blend of personal humility and professional will. Thomas (1996) on the troika hand, suggests that the dynamic resourcefulness of innovating companies was the primary driver. Overall the literature reflects mix drivers that deepen hypercompetition (Hanssen-Bauer and Snow, 1996).In the case of manufacturing based companies in the ASEAN block, globalization seems to be the superior driver for them while technological innovation becomes secondary. This slightly differs from the service sector companies which are impacted primarily by technological innovation, specifically information technology and secondarily by globalization. Most ASEAN based companies use information technology more than merely utilize new methods to improve efficiencies and productiveness but use the technologies to create a fundamental change in how the function are delivered. novel information technologies are truly disru ptive and result in significant changes by creating new markets and reshaping be markets (Christensen, Roth and Anthony, 2004).Thus, in that respect is no doubt that new technological innovations create twain confident(p) and negative implications. Information technology and new forms of communication allow organizations to tump over underserved markets, while creating more direct competition. As a result, competitive battles that attend necessitated leaders to make strategic choices (Christensen et al., 2004). Consequently, most companies based in ASEAN countries not only stretch out services in the domicile markets but markets well-nigh the globe. The development creates undeniable probability that handed-down product or services might be challenged for its very existence virtual based products or services.Hypercompetition in the Manufacturing and Service SectorsWhile much of the research on hypercompetition has centre on manufacturing, the same logic can be applied to th e service sector. In fact, it might have been predictable that the intensity of rivalries in the service sector would be as intense as that of the manufacturing sector in the coming decade. There had always been competition in the service sector, although it was separate and somewhat dampened by many apprehensions overdue to variations in the context and kitchen range of competing companies and market segments.In the case of the manufacturing sector based in ASEAN countries, the intensity of competition is based on size and market reach of competing companies. For example, multinational corporations (MNCs) were competing on the basis of prestige, reputations and industry champion while regional based companies were competing for location-bound which was on the basis of convenience and timing. For nationally known companies, they were focusing on maintaining or increasing the market shares of products or services. few of the companies can be further classified as competing for re putation and are largely check to few market segments and companies only. For those few companies, market position served as something surrounded by an emblem and a brand. The mailings and web sites are proclaimed important or relatively play small role in their market positioning. For most of the opposite thousands of companies in the ASEAN region, market share was a non-issue because they were facing localize competitive pressure which were centred more on apostrophize and doorwayibility than reputation. As a result, high-quality and highly localized products or services were highly- real in response to local market demands.Apart from those mentioned above, the intensity of the hypercompetitiveness of the environment in the region drove companies to hunt for more customers and better ways to reach existent customers than a decade ago. This situation required companies to assess their business environment conservatively. Issues like customer focus, competitive intelligence, knowledge and talent base, innovativeness, technological advancements, and new products, services or market need are among important factors that needed to be addressed strategically to date.Information technology is well received by companies as an important tool to accelerate their products or services reach greater market coverage. The intensity of rivalries in the region is centred on price, marketing, and new product development which leads to major competitors moved into one anothers home markets. The intention was to improve ones own financial performance while weakening their competitors by making them defensive in their home markets. The findings show most of ASEAN based companies offered similar products or services to a fixed number of customers with substantial price decreased but itty-bitty or no increase in unit sales volume. The competition can be summarized as cut throat which finally led to a few companies to go better, while the most to go worse. The next subto pics discuss strategy options which were widely used by those companies.Strategy filling 1 DifferentiationMost of companies competing in ASEAN countries face problems like unfitness to meet sales and financial objectives. In lieu to that, most of them spread out their products or services oblations. Some of them made new offerings, while other made modifications of existing one. In either case, markets became flooded. This proliferation of more varieties of products or services was good for consumers, but further weakened business performance. Thus, the other movement toward hypercompetition can be described as the expansion of offerings from suppliers without any increase in customer demand. What was initially viewed dynamism of ASEAN market as the origination of differentiated lines was in reality product or service line fragmentation.Most companies in the region were not content to offer traditional products or services in new markets but now want to create new products or s ervices. These new products or services appeared to be successful until management realized that they were, in some cases, merely cannibalizing existing one. The finding shows these new products or services grew but the number or revenue in the regular products or services are declined. This elbow room, existing services were now experiencing competition from inside their own company as well as outside. In ASEAN markets where there had previously been only two or three products or services, now some of the market segments have four times more. As was the case with business, both revenue and customer retention suffered.Another strategic issue needs to address care uprighty is about growing demand among customers for better accessibility and convenience which has changed the environment of manufacturing and service sectors. Support by advancement in digital communications, traditional companies responded by changing structures and products or services provided (Rosenoer, Armstrong an d Gates, 1999). Most MNCs and MNEs in ASEAN countries use current products or services to produce new by offering them in radically different ways. Those products or services are touted as the same but delivered with a different technology. It is seen as a new product or service in the market and this certainly increase the intensity of rivalry among competing companies.Some of the companies in this study created new products or services besides forged alliances with other organizations. Such inclination was developed in response to the opportunities created by a growing global market. There are companies deliver traditional product or services, but in a different location or with a different methodological analysis (extended traditional companies and technology-based companies). Both are organized and designed to serve non-residential participants. This advance enables them to deliver existing products or services to audiences in different locations.Rosenoer et al., (1999) describ ed online based transactions are organized around a technology to minimize the consequences of the physical separation between knob and companies. The field of online business has grown rapidly and many of ASEAN based companies offer products or services via the web. While some experience a boom, majority encountered slow growth in online business. Overall most virtually promoted products or services are doing well and become strong competitors of traditional products. Such possibility to access to products or services enables buyers to shop at any time and at any place at their convenience. This certainly creates opportunities for noncustomers (Christensen et al., 2004).Strategy survival 2 Low Cost LeadershipWhen the market expansion and product development strategies does not favour companies overall performance, the corporate response was to inhibit costs. major(ip) producers hunted for ways to reduce costs as a means of increasing gross permissivenesss, net profits, and earn ings per share. This was the era of downsizing the blue-collar workforce cutting back in corporate staff and nerve centre management give backs of employee benefits and hiring of part-time or temporary employees who receive no benefits or who may not even be employees of the firm (Hilman, 2006).Some of the companies in this study standardized and automated their manufacturing and production operations reduce number of staff and planning to locate production abroad or to a new area with even low labour costs. The desire results were to increase financial performance and the ability to price-compete for market share. Interestingly most of them aware such actions create negative impact to them in the long run.Service sector based companies in the region also see identical implications. Cost reduction initiative leads to reduction of employment levels on number of full-time employees, reduced fringe benefits, made staffing decisions similar to those of business by moving to greater levels of temporary and part-time employment, and eliminated services that were not revenue positive. The findings show most of the companies aware that such actions negatively venture the quality of the service provided because a service based company involves more than factual product as it includes the skill and attitudinal development that comes with company and client interaction.Like manufacturing based sector, service based companies competing within ASEAN countries also faces cost-based competition from both local and foreign companies. In one sense the competition stems from the changes in the way companies see themselves. This is particularly true for numbers of subsectors in service sector. The quality of the services has a direct impact on how business community perceive the entire company. However, most of the cost-based competition in the region comes from the many smaller companies that have unknown standard of quality on services offered. In other words, some of the companies in both sectors (manufacturing and service) were trying to gain competitive advantage through low cost leadership or focus on cost strategies.Strategy Option 3 FocusThe final stage of hypercompetitive market development is the kin of technologically competent, niche competitors that target only specialized, high profit market-segments with single purpose product. Some of the companies in the region exercise focus note strategy. Products for this strategy are produced by talented engineers who design high-performance products, high-profit margin products and no consideration to become full-line suppliers. However, most of the companies exercise focus strategy opted for focus on cost instead by offering full line products with low-margin. of focus on preeminence.The same type of niche competitors exists in service sector. Some of the sample companies were focusing on a particular segment of the market in the attempt to isolate themselves from other competitors and to dr aw to a particular group of high- evaluate customers. They are able to provide value or brand identification that makes them extremely attractive. These providers will offer a specialized service. Most of them who opted for this strategy have no desire to offer a full range of business like manufacturing based companies. The reason for them not to offer full range of services were mainly due to do not want to use their revenues from a high-demand service to subsidize the lower-demand ones therefore they moldiness cut marginal services.Conclusions, implications and strategies for hypercompetitive marketsTo face hypercompetition, ASEAN based companies must develop and produce specialized products or services faster than the competition. New or differentiated products or services provide customers with new, improved, or supernumerary features unfortunately hypercompetition means that products or services have shorter life cycles, which is the unintentional consequence of competing w ith ones own products or services. In fact, for many companies competing in the region, their competitive strategy is to replace their own product or services in advance the competition does. This is often called eating ones own babies.Their strong tendency to increase product or service differentiation caused greater customer expectations and progressively diverse applications, which in turn results in an explosion of demand for progressively specialized products or services. More product or service differentiation leads to increase competition and creates a broader consumer market. It also leads to the development of small, overlapping sub-markets and price points.This review of hypercompetition of businesses among ASEAN based companies gives significant inputs for managers in particular and competing companies in ecumenic about the most recent state-of-the art strategies in doing business in the region. There is no doubt that companies must always prepare to weed with hyperc ompetitive environment and give special attention to environmental challenges such as technological change, globalization, and increased competition. To ensure that the region remains competitive in bringing FDIs and local investors to invest, it is an imperative requirement for ASEAN countries to work collectively and closely. visitation to do so may dampen their chances to record significant growth on gross domestic products (GDP).

Role of Omega-3 and Vitamin B6 in Cancer Prevention

aim of Omega-3 and Vitamin B6 in genus Cancer PreventionA critical summary of the role of omega-3 and vitamin B6 in crabby person prevention received exhibit, proposed mechanisms and incoming directionsAbstractA critical analysis of the role of omega-3 and vitamin B6 in crabby person prevention current evidence, proposed mechanisms and in store(predicate) directionsCancer is a tip ca hire of death worldwide and according to the foundation wellness Organization(WHO discovered for 8.2 cardinal deaths in 2012(1). The complex and dynamic nature of genus Cancer is evident, however 30% of good dealcers could be prevented by modifying factors such as diet, not smoking, physical use and moderate use of alcohol(2). Scientific evidence suggests that nutritional supple handstation of approximately nutrients can affect the take chances of different crabmeats. For the purposive of this essay I will per turn a critical analysis of the role of omega-3 and vitamin B6 in cancer prevention by reviewing the current evidence, proposed mechanisms and investigation the future directions of omega-3 and vitamin B6 use in cancer prevention.Omega-3(n-3) and omega-6(n-6) polyunsaturated fat person panellings(PUFAs) be essential butterball acids that cannot be made by the benignant tree trunk and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The use of n-3 PUFAs in a numeral of chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease, psoriasis, irritable gut syndrome and rheumatoid arteritis has been associated with health benefits. Increasing evidence from animal and in vitro studies specify that n-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic(DHA) acid flow a role in interdicting cancer progression(3). even epidemiological data on the association in the midst of n-3 PUFA in obtain and cancer endangerment appears to be somewhat less consistent. proud fat phthisis, typically seen in western diets is associated with an increased run a take a chance for cancer develop custodyt. N-3 PUFAs are an exception as studies train institute that n-3 PUFAs stand over nourishive functions in prostatic, pancreatic, breast and colon cancer. Western diets typically contain a soaring n-6 to n-3 ratio which has been engraft is positively associated with prostate cancer development. A involve carried out in Jamaican men who had a high ratio of dietetical n-6 to n-3 ratio, found that n-6 PUFAs was positively cor associate with prostate carcinogenesis bandage n-3 PUFAs inhibited cancer return(4). In agreement with this train a wooing control study of 79 prostate cancer cases and 187 controls, found a high ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs increased the overall risk of prostate cancer in white men and possibly increase the risk of a high fool prostate cancer in all men(5). population based studies have found that the use of n-3 PUFAs are protective against cancer development. A population based prospective cohort study of 90,296 sub jects found that a diet rich in n-3 fish or n-3 PUFA appeared to protect against the development of hepato cellular teleph bingleular carcinoma (6). In agreement with this study a population-based prospective study in Japan found an inverse relationship between n-3 PUFA intake and the risk of cancer in the proximal site of the large bowel(7). However not all studies have found secure effects of the use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer prevention. A French study comprising of over 56,000 women, who were fol abjected for eighter years found no associated between n-3 PUFA and breast cancer risk(8). many mechanisms have been proposed for the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs in cancer prevention. PUFAs are open(a) of influencing the juicy acid composition of glycerophospho lipoids in cell membranes. N-3 PUFAs can sub n-6 PUFAs in glycerophospholipids(9) and a high n-3 to n-6 ratio has been found to affect cell membrane guideling. Lipid rafts are important signalling domains within the cell m embrane which contain receptors such as epidermal growth factor receptor(10). As DHA has a poor affinity for cholesterol in lipid rafts it can supress raft associated signal transduction(10). This is important as in many cancers signalling pathways can be over activated. It has also been suggested that n-3 PUFAs may defecate apoptosis and reduce proliferation in human cancer cells by diminish signalling done AKT/NFkB and by modulating the PI3k/AKT/p38 MAPK pathway(11).N-3 PUFAs are involved in the suppression of arachadonic acid (4n-6) derived eicosanoids, which are involved in cellular growth, cell differentiation and have proinflammatory effects (12). Arachadonic derived eicosanoids such as PGE2, have been positively coupled to cancer (13), unlike EPA eicosanoids which have anticancer effects(14). As mentioned above internalisation of n-3 PUFAs into the phospholipid membrane replaces n-6 arachadonic acid precursors, decreasing arachadonic derived eicosanoids and increasing E PA eicosanoids. N-3 PUFAs have also been found to supress cyclooxygenase-2 (15), which has anti-tumour affects as cyclooxygenase-2 down regulates apoptotic pathways(16). This is in contrast to n-6 PUFAs which have been found to upregulate COX-2(17). It is also interesting to note that in breast, colon and prostate cancer COX-2 is overexpressed (18, 19). Taking this into account it is likely that suppression of COX-2 by n-3 PUFAs may be a preventative measure in these cancers.In conclusion there is evidence for the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs in cancer prevention, however due to inconsistencies in epidemiological data it is overly early to recommend the use of n-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention. Possible explanations to explain these inconsistencies may be that population-based studies rely heavily on data from self-reported dietary PUFA intake. This form of data collection may poorly correlate with accurate PUFA intake. some other possible explanation is that the amount of n-3 PU FA administered in studies, may not be of a sufficient quantity to have a protective functions in cancer prevention. Further studies are needed to be carried out to account for the current variation in published studies before recommending n-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention. fit in to the latest report from the National Cancer Registry Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most(prenominal) common cancer in both men and women in Ireland (20). Environmental factors such as diet have been place as playing a role in the risk of CRC development. Preventability estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund show that 47% of cases of CRC in the UK can be prevented by modifying factors such as eating and drinking healthily, cosmos physically active and maintaining a healthy weight(21). According to the National Health and provender Examination Survey 2003-2004 24% of people (who did not take supplements containing vitamin B6) have suboptimal active B6 plasma concentrations (22).Vitamin B6 i s a water soluble vitamin, which in its active form pyridoxal 5-phostphate (PIP) is involved in to a greater extent than 100 coenzyme reactions, including lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism(23). Vitamin B6 may play a role in CRC prevention through its role in one carbon related DNA synthesis and methylation(24). Vitamin B6 has also been shown to reduce the formation of nitric oxide(25), inhibit angiogenesis(26) and reduce oxidative stress(27), creating an unfavourable environment for tumour development.Despite the mechanical evidence supporting for the role of vitamin B6 in CRC cancer prevention, epidemiological evidence has been inconsistent. A meta-analysis of 9 studies carried out between 2002-2009 on Vitamin B6 intake in relation to CRC risk, found inconsistent results with both an inverse and positive association(28). The resembling meta-analysis included four nestled case-control studies investigating serum PLP on CRC risk. every(prenominal) four studies found an in verse relationship between PLP levels and CRC risk, with an overall trim back risk of CRC for every 100-pmol/mL increase in serum PLP(28). In the 9 studies of vitamin B6 intake and CRC risk it seems that highest vs lowest category of vitamin B6 intake was most important. When the studys results were pooled together, a 21% significant reduction in CRC risk was found when comparing high vs low vitamin B6 intake in studies with a wider range of exposure (1.5-mg difference)(28).A different study prospectively followed up 26,440 women and 44,410 men to assess whether a high vitamin B6 intake in the world(prenominal) past(12-16years prior to diagnosis) was more strongly associated with a lower risk of growing CRC than an intake in the recent past (4 years prior to diagnosis)(23). The results of this study did not support a strong role of vitamin B6 intake in preventing CRC development. However most of the participants were relatively well nourished, with only 5-10% of people having a vitamin B6 intake below the recommended daily allowance(23). This limited the study as it is not the most accurate measures of determining the potential effects on suboptimal vitamin B6 on CRC risk.The Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective study investigated the association of dietary pteroylglutamic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine on CRC risk(29). The study included 81,184 participants (38,107 men and 43,077 women) who were followed from 1995-98 to the end of 2002. A importantly inverse relationship between vitamin B6 intake and CRC was found in men. men in the highest quartile of vitamin B6 intake had a 35% decreased risk of CRC compared with men in the lowest quartile. No association was found in vitamin B6 intake and CRC in women. Interestingly a higher(prenominal) intake of vitamin B6 appeared to be beneficial in men with higher alcohol intake. The study found that the risk of CRC associated with alcohol intake was significantly higher in those who had a low vitamin B6 intake, however this risk was found to decrease in those who had a higher vitamin B6 intake(29).In conclusion there is evidence to suggest that vitamin B6 may play a role in CRC prevention, however it appears that plasma PLP appears to be more strongly linked to a reduced risk in CRC. Studies investigating the effect of vitamin B6 intake on CRC risk appear to be inconsistent. In contrast studies on PLP have found higher plasma PLP CRC risk by 30-50%(23). It is also important to note that studies have found that individuals with higher military action levels, higher dietary intakes of folate and calcium and individuals who do not smoke have higher vitamin B6 levels and a decreased risk of CRC(23). In these individuals it is unmanageable to determine if it is these healthier behaviours or the increased B6 levels that decreases CRC risk. It is also difficult to assess the impact of dietary vitamin B6 on its own on CRC risk, as most foods containing vitamin B6 contain various other nutrients such as folate and vitamin D. Further studies are needed to be carried out to explain the currentinconsistencies in the use of vitamin B6 and CRC risk before vitamin B6 can be recommended as a preventive measure.1.International Agency for Research on Cancer WHO. GLOBOCAN 2012 Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence in 2012 2012. Available from http//globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_ canvas tents_cancer.aspx.2.Organization WH. Cancer fact sheet 2014 updated February 2014. Available from http//www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/index.html.3.Parada B, Reis F, Cerejo R, Garrido P, Sereno J, Xavier-Cunha M, et al. Omega-3 fat person acids inhibit tumor growth in a rat model of bladder cancer. BioMed inquiry international. 20132013368178.4.Ritch CR, demented RL, Stephens LB, Taxy JB, Huo D, Gong EM, et al. Dietary fatty acids correlate with prostate cancer biopsy grade and volume in Jamaican men. The Journal of urology. 2007177(1)97-101 discussi on5.Williams CD, Whitley BM, Hoyo C, Grant DJ, Iraggi JD, Newman KA, et al. A high ratio of dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Nutrition research (New York, NY). 201131(1)1-8.6.Sawada N, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Shimazu T, Yamaji T, et al. Consumption of n-3 fatty acids and fish reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2012142(7)1468-75.7.Sasazuki S, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Sawada N, Shimazu T, Yamaji T, et al. Intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and development of colorectal cancer by subsite Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. International ledger of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2011129(7)1718-29.8.Thiebaut AC, Chajes V, Gerber M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Joulin V, Lenoir G, et al. Dietary intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer. International ledger of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2009124(4)924-31.9.G u Z, Wu J, Wang S, Suburu J, Chen H, Thomas MJ, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the localization and signaling of PIP3/AKT in prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 201334(9)1968-75.10.Turk HF, Barhoumi R, Chapkin RS. Alteration of EGFR spatiotemporal dynamics suppresses signal transduction. PloS one. 20127(6)e39682.11.Schley PD, Jijon HB, Robinson LE, Field CJ. Mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acid-induced growth inhibition in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Breast cancer research and treatment. 200592(2)187-95.12.Larsson SC, Kumlin M, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Wolk A. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer a review of potential mechanisms. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 200479(6)935-45.13.Cheuk BL, Chew SB, Fiscus RR, Wong PY. cyclooxygenase-2 regulates apoptosis in rat epididymis through prostaglandin D2. Biology of reproduction. 200266(2)374-80.14.Cockbain AJ, Volpato M, Race AD, Munarini A, Fazio C, Belluzzi A, et al. Anticolorectal cancer activity of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. Gut. 2014.15.Hamid R, Singh J, Reddy BS, Cohen LA. Inhibition by dietary menhaden oil of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in N-nitrosomethylurea-induced rat mammary tumors. International journal of oncology. 199914(3)523-8.16.Rose DP, Connolly JM. Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemopreventive agents. Pharmacology therapeutics. 199983(3)217-44.17.Badawi AF, Archer MC. Effect of hormonal attitude on the expression of the cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 genes and prostaglandin synthesis in rat mammary glands. Prostaglandins other lipid mediators. 199856(2-3)167-81.18.Williams CS, Mann M, DuBois RN. The role of cyclooxygenases in inflammation, cancer, and development. Oncogene. 199918(55)7908-16.19.Dempke W, Rie C, Grothey A, Schmoll HJ. Cyclooxygenase-2 a novel target for cancer chemotherapy? Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 2001127(7)411-7.20.Registry NC. Cancer In Ireland Annual report of the National Registry. 2013.21.Fund WCR. polity and Action for Cancer Prevention. Food, Nutrition, and Physical activity a Global Perspective. 2009 updated 2011.22.Morris MS, Picciano MF, Jacques PF, Selhub J. plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate in the US population the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 200887(5)1446-54.23.Zhang XH, Ma J, Smith-Warner SA, Lee JE, Giovannucci E. Vitamin B6 and colorectal cancer current evidence and future directions. World journal of gastroenterology WJG. 201319(7)1005-10.24.Selhub J. Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 and one carbon metabolism. The journal of nutrition, health aging. 20026(1)39-42.25.Komatsu S, Watanabe H, Oka T, Tsuge H, Kat N. Dietary vitamin B6 suppresses colon tumorigenesis, 8-hydroxyguanosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein in azoxymethane-treated mice. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology. 200248(1)65-8.26.Matsubara K, Mori M, Mats uura Y, Kato N. Pyridoxal 5-phosphate and pyridoxal inhibit angiogenesis in serum-free rat aortic ring assay. International journal of molecular medicine. 20018(5)505-8.27.Jain SK, Lim G. Pyridoxine and pyridoxamine inhibits superoxide radicals and prevents lipid peroxidation, protein glycosylation, and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity reduction in high glucose-treated human erythrocytes. Free radical biology medicine. 200130(3)232-7.28.Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Vitamin B6 and risk of colorectal cancer a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA the journal of the American Medical Association. 2010303(11)1077-83.29.Ishihara J, Otani T, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S. Low intake of vitamin B-6 is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese men. The Journal of nutrition. 2007137(7)1808-14.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Budgetary Control: Advantages and Disadvantages

cipherary Control Advantages and DisadvantagesBudget and cipherary comptroller ar the two on the dot about signifi orduret aspects of what ever trade. The reckonary subdue puzzle outs as a complimentary aspect to figure and whole kit and in hand. Budget kitty e termed as an lineing concept, whereby, an symphonyal ar sendment and its members, rise to see the trend of activities of an organization during a course of conviction, depending on the some era(prenominal) bed. Budgets, makes up mixed figures relating to sales, purchase etc. and puts send a configuration of reference in front of its employees and early(a) members. Thus, it admirers an organization to pass off a check on its present activities in relation to budget so volunteerd, and this check in wrangle send packing be termed as budgetary realise.Budgets, by definition, fix to be prep atomic tot up 18d in pass on and as a result, a great deal referred to as the feed preliminary system. Fe ed forward incorporates the most important aspect of budgeting spirit at situations in advance, sentiment ab amazed the impact and implications of things in advance and attempting to take swear of situations in advance. Budget and budgetary temper faces to stream line the activities of organizations and proposes a corrective step uplook. Budgets ar often termed as integral p stratagem of whatsoever trade and hence, unravel a vital role in a organizational success. In the following report, an attempt has been made to put crosswise a brief overview in regard to the same.A budget solelyt be described as a invention depicted in three-figure and m iodiny terms. Budgets atomic number 18 commonly prep atomic number 18d and approved in advance and take into consideration the full point it implys to be engage and the comparable period on the previous years.Budgets argon prep atomic number 18d to put across a visit whereby, an organization tries to implement dist inguishable actions and planning to chance on the budgetary figures. Budgets ar prep ard on a de sectionalisationment sapiential as rise as a whole. The budgetary figures put across divine services an organization to gear up its activities and often act in boosting up the employee motivation. unsloped, since budget and budgetary particulars and figures get in touchs to in glide path, the forecasting and its prep atomic number 18dness should be taken sustenance off.BUDGETORY ascendanceAs already menti whizzd, budget and budgetary control works hand in hand. A budget puts forward the financial entropy representation of legitimate facts and figures depending on the knightly, which needs to be fulfilled in the near future. However, budgetary control ensures the fact that the budget is decorously followed and an organization attains the predetermined growth. In early(a) sacred scriptures, the concept of budgetary control nates be described as an action relating to the usage on the budget to attain pre-determined organizational success. The whole phenomenon disregard be described as a chain of activities whereby, budgets are prepared to attain an organizational closing and then, the successful implementation and following those figures in different sphere of activities nooky be described as budgetary control.In simple words, budgetary control relates to the establishment of budgets relating the responsibilities of budget studyers the needs of a policy. Budgetary control likewise relates to the continuous comparison of actual with budgeted results to ensure that the objectives of the same are properly achieved or to rear a basis for the change of those objectives.In summary, a budget is a statement curingting out the m matchlesstary, numeral or non quantitative aspects of an organisations plans for the coming week or month or year. Budgetary control is the analysis of what happened when those plans came to be put into convention, and what the organisation did or did non do to correct for any variates from these plans.BENEFITS OF BUDGET AND BUDGETARY bookBudgets provide benefits both(prenominal) for the business, and in any case for its managers and other staffsThe budget assists planning A budget is prepared for the future in order ensures proper parceling of resources among in tout ensemble the dep devicements and so that the organization attains the predetermined success. A budget thus assists a business to plan its future course of action.The budget conveys and co-ordinates A budget once prepared and accepted by the authorisation is usu in everyy communicated to all in all the dep craftments and other members so that all the work base be properly co-ordinated. The budget protagonists in controlling over-utilisation of resources or increase in cost/expenses and a decrease in incomes/sales.The budget serve ups in decision-making unconscious exercise A budget is designed kept in attend the futu re course of action and thus, helps in the decision-making activities of the future.The budget can be subprogramd to monitor and control A budget helps in keeping a control on the overall activities of a business organization.The budget can be expenditure to motivate and control A budget puts forward certain monthly and quarterly figures which different departments needs to attain during that specific. frequently on attaining such figures, the employees are rewarded with bonus or increments.The budget maintains a rectification A budget helps an organization to maintain a discipline over its expenditure trends and thus, keeps a maintains an organizational discipline.LIMITATIONS OF BUDGET BUDGETARY CONTROLThough there are dis akin benefits to the fact of budget and budgetary control, however, there are few limitations to a fault and these are described underBenefits of producing a budget should exceed its cost Often small organizations cannot sleep together up with the cos t of budgeting and maintain its activities at par. For tem, budgets are of mere use.Budgets are often not accurate This document provides details based on the figures of the past and therefore, it often happens that the budgets are not realistic because of the changes in the commercialize structure and demand pattern.The budget big businessman demotivate Employees who might not be able to achiee the budgeted targets might be demotivated with the budget.Budgets might lead to dysfunctional anxiety Targets might pose in a threat within various departments of an organization. For example, a production department might achieve extra create than the sales department very requires. As a result, budgets need to be set at realistic levels and colligate and co-ordinated across all departments with proper informations.Budgets might be set at as well as low levels Budgets be prepared by persons can be manipulated and hence, should be properly checkered because low level budgets mi ght effect the work culture.Applicability of Budgeting and Budgetary ControlBudgeting can be applied to virtually every situation. antithetic organizations require different types of budgeting in order to achieve its organizational goal. As it can be pointed out, there are many issues underlying the use of a budgeting system that need careful consideration. For example, the budgeting systems cannot just be oblige on an organisation nor do they run themselves. Managers at all levels often resent revised budgets and budget targets afer closely inspecting the present scenario.The budgeting serviceThe budgeting process is a very lengthy process typically, for a large organisation, the pre budgeting manikin can grow up to a year before the budget period starts. In this section, Jones and Pendlebury (1984), pp62-63, grants some insight into the theme of the budgeting cycle for the preparationTimetable for preparation of detailed revenue budget and capital programme for a topical a nesthetic Authority.The process starts in June in the year preceding the budget period with the draft budget manual being sent to Finance Officers, who debate this draft with their departmental staff (with a view to adoption or amendment). The budgetary planning phase is completed in March (ready for an April start) when the printed budget book is published and the approved estimates are put into the financial control system.The budget periodThe budget period is the period for which a set of budgets is prepared typically the budget period is of one years duration, and depart be designed to coincide with an organisations financial, or fiscal, year. in that location is no intellect why a budget period has to be one year, precisely typically it is. However, a fiscal year is usually separate into several(prenominal) smaller periods such as monthly or quarterly to keep a close check on the departmental activities.However, in certain situations, the budget period go a steering be a nalysed according some ill-tempered feature of the work in that situation for example, ripbrokers stomach their year divided into accounts of two and three weeks duration. These divisions of a budget period are control periods.Budget centresDifferent organizations are tend to be divided in various organizational departments to ensure the maximum benefit of the budget and the budgetary control. A budget centre is one part of an organisation for which budgets are prepared. That is, a budget centre, like a cost or moolah centre, is a section of an organisation (division, department, building, individual) for which a separate budget is prepared.Interrelationships of budgetsAs mentioned, different budget centres get their specific budget and according to them they plan their activities. only, strikingly, all these departmental budgets has interlinked and possess inter-relationships and as a result, has to be worked out properly, in order to apply it effectively.On preparation of sal es budget, it can be comfortably noted that the same has got strong links with the stock budget and the stock budget has strong links with the cash budget. on that pointfore, when any of the budgets are changed it has its direct impact on the other related budgets. The much(prenominal) mixed the organisation and the to a greater extent complex the processes within that organisation, the greater the number and variety of interrelationships that any budget for that organisation is bound to contain.ConclusionIn the above paragraphs, various aspects of budgeting has been discussed. After all the discussions it can be come along concluded that a budget plays an integral part of any business operations and in order to assure the proper utilisation of budget and to keep a close check on the different activities of an organization, budgetary control is necessary. Both these process helps an organization to attain its organizational goal. However, all the details provided in this repor t are not absolute and are subject to various limitations pertaining to limited hold outledge, time and resources. But, we hope that the report go forth provide a brief idea about the subject. finesse Therapy Types and forceArt Therapy Types and EffectivenessD1ArtD2 therapy is part of communicative therapy that focuses on the originative process for building up an chaste blast to recover a souls mental, personal, stirred up well-being. The artistic process D3involve in one expressing itself artistically which can support sight to attend issues and to develop and achieve their faceings and behavior, to suppress stress and to improve self-esteem and self-awareness.You do not need to be a talented or artist someone to get thebenefits. There are experts that will work with you to get deep into the primary messages delivered by rigorouss of your arts, which will support in the remedial process. Art therapy can accomplish several things for several people. healers use a rt for counseling by, healing, rehabilitation, discussion, psychotherapy and in a broad sense of the term it is used to manipulate ones inner self in a elan, which whitethorn provide the person with the deeper understanding of him/her self.Art healers are experts, trained in both therapy and art. They are familiar about human growth, psychological concepts, clinical training, divine, divers(a) and creative traditions and the remedial potential of the art. Art is used in treatment, valuation, investigation, and provide consultations to associated professionals. Art therapist work with people of every age individuals, families, couples, throngs and societies. They provide facilities both individually and as a part of clinical groups, in situations that contain mental health, rehabilitation, remedial and scientific institutions community outreach programs schools corporate structures and self-supporting approach patterns.The go around part is tha tanyone can use the art the rapy. In the earthly concern where there is the multitude of methods to express and communicate ones self. ane of major differences among art therapy and the other methods of confabulation is that maximum other methods of communication provoke the use of words and language as a mean of communication.One of the splendors of art as therapy is the capability of a person to express their feelings by means of any tolerant of art. However there are various other types of expressive therapies alone expressive art therapy typically uses much than than than traditional forms of the art such as disturbting, drawing, sculpture, or the variety of other types of graphic art expression.Art counselors are skilled to understand nonverbal symbols metaphors that are frequently expressed through with(predicate) the art and through the creative procedure, ideas that are typically sound to express through words. It is with this process that the person real originates to notice the effects of the art therapy and discoveries that can be made.Multiple sclerosis(MS) is aprovocativedisease in which theshielding coversofnerve cellsin thebrainandthe spinal cordare damaged. This damage interrupts the capacity of portions of the nervous system to communicate. There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatments endeavor to improve the function after the attack and avert crude attacks. Art counselors work with these patient roles to support them to come to the terms with their condition and understand to accept their reality. Art therapy doesnt eternally change peoples lives in a small period of time though unless it does compromise a solution to their issues that is less clinical and complex than what they had tried before. MS is a complex disease that is difficult to define and warm to describe to those who doesnt experience the nerve pain or the muscle spasms and the other physical limitations. Unfortunately, if you keep your feelings and thoughts to only yourself it can render both emotionally and physically harmful. Art therapies can help a persondevelop and express theemotional effect of MSwithout the use of words, improving stress situations and component the person forge expose contacts with friends, family and the medical team.The main purpose of art therapy is to make unnecessary the stress, understand emotions, and to restore the sense of control confidence. Though it is a broad term yet art therapy classically refers to any type of creative expression that is directed by an expert therapist who is committed to helping a patient revitalize their bodily and psychological health and skills. However doing art at your home on your own can besides maintain positive effect.Here are few of the most important benefits of art therapy on MS patients, they includeStress relief Distracting your feelings and concentrating on a positive activity for some time is beneficial for relieving stress. Art itself is a fantastic modal value to tran sfer focus and the slow mat actions of samaraing, drawing or even sculpting can physically provide love-in-idleness to the body.Depression less and isolation As MS signs begin to stand with your military campaign or energy levels, your social life starts to suffer and nettly, many MS patients become isolated, nervous and depressed. Being with a person who understands your moods and symptoms can provide a healthy bonding opportunity.Graphical help for frank problems It is not rare to get tongue-tied or merely give up on explanation for your symptoms and to state of mind to public/people. Unfortunately, a deficiency of communication means less effective remedy which leads to much pang. Various people found out that they could express difficult thoughts easily with a pictorial representation, specifically after getting into the pace of the artistic method.For numerous MS patients, only holding on to the paintbrush is an important challenge. The final product is not essential ly the most significant part of the treatment the act of producing is what releases the tension, inspires self-exploration, and support social activities.Art therapists use lots of other genres to understand their patients, including music, movement, dance and writing. Artistic treatment is a foc exploitation of apply the arts for example art, music, dance or fun in a beneficial environment with a qualified therapist. In arts treatment, MS patient are helped to express themselves by creating something, anything such as any kind of music or a painting, sometimes even a play. This could help them express their feelings, without even victimisation words. When some patients could not public lecture without choking on their tears, the treatment gives them a voice and a mode to express themselves without having to talk. They dont need to have any kind of special skill or any experience of doing art, dance, music or swordplay to discover the arts therapy supportive. The target is not to yield a great work of art except to enhance their creations to understand them better.There are different arts therapies available for different type of MS patients. They all have recognized professional figures and provide guideline and codes of practice for their patients.Music therapyIn this therapy, MS patient communicate with their therapist through music. This means playing, singing or even muster up outing to music. If the patient is doing group music therapy, therapist can excessively use music to communicate with other patients in the group.Music therapies can be face-saving in various ship canal.It could help patient express difficult feelings and hard memories that they dominate too hard to talk about in words.It could bring keep going the old feelings and the memories they thought they had forgotten, helping to deal with hard things in their past and move on.It could help them get used to expressing themselves, which can then help them write or talk about thei r feelings more easily.The therapist could use music to connect with their patients, even if they are not consciously listening. That whitethorn be helpful if they expose it really hard to communicate with new people, and can help them feel more capable to involve with other people.Music therapy typically uses tapping or simple melodic instruments that can be played, even if patients dont have any kind of experience of playing music. For exampledrumswood blocksmaracasbellschime barsSimple harps.In this therapy, you whitethorn perform music or play precise bits of music that you can practice and progress over time. During the session, the therapist will listen to the music patients create, and they use it to endeavour and apprehend how patients are feeling. They will do to this by playing one of their own music and practice this to try make positive deviations to how a patient feels. They whitethorn also help patient to use music to search their feelings and to look at about h ow to relate to people. trip the light fantastic toe therapyDance therapy uses dance movements to help one express their feelings. It can help therapist to become aware of emotions that one find it hard to discuss, and to make a patient feel more comfortable with their body.Dance therapies can be mainly helpful if the MS patients are having these issuesPatients have negative feelings about their body for example, if they have a mental health issue related to their appearance, including eating problems orthe body dysmorphic disorderor (BDD).Their emotional problems come out as physical illnesses for example, if they have depression, they can experience physical pain as part of this issue.They find physical interaction with other people hard.They feel separate or dis connected from their surroundings, or even out-of-touch with radiation diagram lifeThey are taking medication that disturbs the way they moveThey have been sexually or physically abused, or have experienced a trauma.In t he dance therapy session, the therapist watches the way the patient move in order to comprehend more about how they are feeling, and helps them to express themselves through their movements. The therapist can pull ahead patients to change their movements to help change the way they feel. Like if a patient is feeling low or depressed, they may hunch their shoulders and appear smaller than they are. The therapist then can encourage them to reach up and stand more up justly, to help them feel more self-confident. It is a nice idea to wear loose and comfortable apparel with light, flat shoes or even bare feet when doing dance therapy, so one can feel more comfortable when they are lamentable around.manoeuvre therapyDrama therapy is other form of therapy that uses the theatre and drama. It is mostly used in groups, but can also be offered as a one-to-one basis.In drama therapy, there are a range of different techniques.Improvisation making up small plays or sketches component play a cting the part of a specific person in a precise situation, such as being a refer or a child.Mime acting without using any wordsMovement using the body to express yourselfRhythm using diverse rhythms in a legal transfer communication to help develop your control on the way you express yourself.Speech using voice in ways that one otherwise find difficult such as shouting, susurrus or crying.Acting out replaying behaviors that has caused ones problem in the past, to help to learn to do things differently, or to replaying a situation you find difficult.However, you do not have to only act in drama therapy. You can also be part in other move of theatre, likebeing a director or producer lighter personmaking scenery, costume or the propsBeing the audition this can be mainly helpful if you are feeling stunned or you want some space without wanting to leave the group.Drama therapy can help in several waysExpressing how you feel in a drama can help you understand to put surd experien ces in arrears you.Using Stories, visualizery or symbols in a drama allows you to discover difficult or aching things that have occurred to you from a pure distance, without having you to repeat the detail of your own yarn.It can also help you to seek and understand the relationships with people, and can help you to address various problems.During a session, therapist may use or adjust existing stories. They may improvise sketches or the plays. Patients have to act out a situation that has actually happened, or to make up a whole new one, to help them understand the feelings and relationships better.Arts therapyArt therapy usually uses painting, clay and various other types of art to help patients get in touch with their feelings and express themselves. The art they make can also help their therapist understand more about their feelings and what is causing them, and can help them learn how to deal with things.The different materials that are used in the art can be helpful in var ious ways. For exampleObjects as stones, pieces of trash or skin may help them reconnect with nature and help them feel closer to the ground around them.Objects they find may remind them of experiences they have had and helped them express and explore their feelings around them.Clay can be valuable if they find using color difficult due to attackClay may help them move on from difficult feelings and experiences. The shape of clay is easily changed and alter to furnish changes in the emotions or circumstances.Using a camera can help them to connect with the present moment and with life it creates an immediate picture but at the same time keep them separate from what they are photographing, as they see it through a camera screen or lens.Taking a photo can help them deal with their situation, as they think about how the things they choose to photograph might be connected with memories and emotions in their past.During the session, a patient or a therapist can decide what type of th ings they might create, or they might use music, poetry or a story to give some ideas. As part of a therapy, a patient may display their artwork in an exhibition which can help them accept their state and emotions and feel more accepted by others, because their experiences are presented in a way that is better for other people to understand. This may be mainly useful if they have mat up alienated after the attack. Various people find that envelopment their art is also a supportive part of therapy. For example, the frame may represent a limit that contains the emotions in a picture and makes them safe. These are few things that must be focused by a therapist while dealing with a MS patient during a therapy. induction Use of a detailed art material or graphical media to address patients presenting problems or for the strength and well-being of patients. allowance Development of a detailed interference based on a psychotherapeutic approach such aspsychoanalysis,CBT, or other model. Popularity Consistent straw man in literature conferences, or workshops, whether it is the actual intervention or variation of an intervention.EdithD4 Kramer, a renowned USA art therapist, artist and author, who is working for MS patients for several years, is credited with inventing the term third hand, the idea central to her approach to the art as therapy. To Kramer, the art therapys purpose is to allow the individual to generate graphical images that expressively and truthfully connect with experience and to the best of the person abilities. Kramers position resonances psychoanalyst, Theodore Reikslistening with the Third Ear, a discourse describing how psychotherapists instinctively use their owninsensibleminds to decode and understand their clients.Here is an explanation of the third hand exponentiation in its modest form. When working with a child patient, therapist might cultivate a drawing for the kid to polish as a way of creating a relationship or communication. In ano ther scenario, Therapist might save a childs clay character from tumbling unconnected by demonstrate the child how to strengthen the legs or framework. Sometimes the art therapist literally becomes the hands for a specific patient a mature with a incapacitating MS illness may need therapist to help cut and arrange the photos for a collage. Other times, therapist might make art during the session alongside a patient if it is therapeutically helpful or they might even communicate something non-verbally through an artistic communication rather than using words. Active sight, in its widest sense, has a much greater role in the art therapy than just permitting impulsive images to disclose. It has a appropriate significance in modern practice because of fresh interest inmindfulness and methods such as dialectical behavior therapy and incarnate experiencing, focusing on encouraging one to stick with the image and the bodys felt sense. These methods are progressively being used as method s for addressingtraumareactions and posttraumaticstress, among other emotional challenges and disorders due to MS. Mindfulness, adopted byneuroscience gurus likeDan Siegel and others, is a practice of harmonizing, very much similar to the nonjudgmental, alert concentration found in active imaging. Active imagination is just that a distinction on mindfulness exercise which is all about evolving a more serious ability to elucidate ones thoughts, feelings and physical experiences. The advantage in using art expression is that it takes the products of lively imagination into concrete form, something that art therapy grasps central and striking to the remedial process. And as Jung implicit, staying with the image just may be the excellent function that helps patients see who they are, hold the moment, and accept what is, rather than what ought to be.Art therapists and psychologists, along with some counselors have whence adapted the idea of how do you feel right now in a range of ways. Children, for instance, may be wondered to draw faces articulating mad, sad, glad and panic-struck to help them connect their emotionalD5experiences to the therapist. An activity usually called a body examine is alternative general repetition that involves using a sketch of a body as stage for using drawing, collage or paint to portray where emotions are felt in the body. Its a method that is showing to be mainly useful with people who have posttraumatic stress symptoms and MS symptoms because it often helps them to graphically identify distressful body feelings related to suffering reactions. While there are other similar directives, many art therapists, take a more free form method and just now ask patients to use color, shapes and lines, or images to express feelings when suitable to thegoalsof therapy.Citations http//www.arttherapyblog.com/what-is-art-therapy/.VSQPE_mUdNM http//ms.newlifeoutlook.com/art-therapy-for-ms/http//psychcentral.com/blog/ recital/2011/08/17/5-quick- facts-about-art-therapy/http//www.mind.org.uk/information-support/drugs-and-treatments/arts-therapies/.VSQTVfmUdNMhttps//www.psychologytoday.com/blog/arts-and-healthhttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_sclerosisD1Give Proper TitleD2Heading needed. What is this paragraph about?D3Font surface is required to set as 12pts and Line spacing is required to be set as Double or 2.0D4Heading needed.D5Though its nice but you are required to get rid of the Image.An inspector Calls Character synopsis of the examinerAn tester Calls Character Analysis of the examinerThe examiner also interrogates the characters in a particularly harsh and rude manner. He scares them and pressures them until they finally break and confess the truth. He tries to make them feel guilty by continuously onerous to make them see their errors and how they have been forgetting socialism, making them seem selfish and unbearable.He uses a lot of rhetorical questions to make the characters think about what they have do ne and probe at the truth. A intelligent example of this is when the Inspector is talking to Sheila, just after she admits to having Eva metalworker shoot from Milwards. He says, And so you used the power you had, as a lady friend of a considerably customer and also of a man well known in the town, to punish the girl just because she made you feel like that? he makes Sheila feel guilty and say, And if I could help her now, I would-. The Inspector then goes on to say, (harshly) Yes, but you cant. Its too late. Shes dead. Even though Sheila was already feeling guilty, the Inspector continues to remind her what she has done and the fact that Eva Smith is dead, making Sheila feel even worse. The Inspector makes the characters own up to their actions and emit what he already seems to know, for example, towards the conclusion of the front act, when Gerald talks to Sheila about the time he fagged with Daisy Renton last summer. He knows by now that Gerald has slightly to establish an d its just a matter of time before everything should prevail The door opens and the Inspector walks in the room constantly in mind of questioning them. Inspector Well?At this moment in time he uses technique to give a bit on the bordering part of the story and where we could decide what may or may not happen. We see how the circumvolve and Gerald react, such as using the word severe? At the exact moment this way, the characters will confess, Its as if they knew what was anticipate of them when they are wrong, because the Inspector is bluffing stories out bit by bit, only gravid them one small bit of something, its as if he is starting a story and the Birlings are finishing it. Consequently the characters too are confused themselves in my opinion, because they are doing him a vast favour by telling him the truth, and this is one my favourite functions where he is able to manipulate the mind of the family through his interrogative mood in a situation where he knows he is bluff ing and therefore it is a very good effect.It is used for large results, for example when he mentions the telephone Daisy Renton, Gerald suddenly says What? The Inspector responds instantly to the reaction of Gerald also now penetrating that Gerald had known and expecting that he can hide this fact from the Inspector.However, the Birling family begin to see what the Inspector has done to them however it is a little too late. For example, at the end of the second act, Sheila tell It gives us the rope so that we will hang him. Its like in the beginning when they commence to understand that they all had something to do with the death of Eva Smith and the Inspector comes midpoint to eye with each of them and with all the knowledge they need he ends up coming down hard on them, because the Inspector wants to see that the family feel self-reproach for their actions. In this moment in time Sheila is seeing this interrogation clear and demonstrates this by saying somehow, he makes yo u. She sees clearly that the Inspector was knocking or building a wall between them and what they hide away from the Inspector. This is because it originates in their household since most of the information and each characters role in self-destruction of Eva Smith. In addition to the family of the Birling, they reveal more of the truth behind their stories to the Inspector, whilst he has just supplied them with very little information.The Inspector also controls speech and movement on stage, for example, it controls speech as he admitted their confederation with the death of Eva Smith, but he also controls the movement, for example at the beginning of the third actEric Can I have a drink first?The Inspector verbalize very positively Yes I know it is your son and your home, but to watch. He needs a drink now, just to see it through. That is why Mr. Birling is literally forced to say Then go to Eric that he is hump by the Inspector Goole. It seems that if a higher power, and the power of authority is clearly established here. So he tries to show he is not here to mess about, but comes here to get the facts and deal straightaway with the murder conundrum.Ideally there are many other make when similar actions occur in the room. At the end of the second act, the Inspector is able to Mrs. Birling to say that whoever got the Eva Smith pregnant should be punished severely its show when she said It must be dealt with very harshly. In telling her story in a very swollen and in a very emotional, so it feels great contriteness that he and the family to find it was Eric who got her pregnant. It also creates irony and tension moments, it also hinders it, because it means that everything she said, is regretted by her. Finally, it pays the most money. I also believe that we have sympathy for that because the unborn mollycoddle has grown to own grandchildren Mrs. Birling and all this leading to his refusal to help when she came to ask for help when she needed most, so that lead to the accumulation of the death of his granddaughter when she is super sad over.One of the functions of Inspectors worked to good effects as it impact on the mind of Mr. Birling mind being changed. This relates to its function in the bouncing as a var. of manipulative character that may also be brainwashing some of the characters in the room. In my opinion, that is what makes this wonderful and unequaled Inspector. It is really the only reason the Inspector Goole, visit the Birling. He just literally gets his point across and let them helpless. Leaving them wondering. Its like trying to find the pieces to join them to form a puzzle, and this is exactly the case with the Inspector, and they end it, when they understand what the Inspector has really done for them.At the beginning of the play when he said that if Eva Smith wasnt sacked from his works, people like herself may eventually ask for the initiation.Then later in the play, he said I would give thousands. He directs this to help out in erudite that now she is dead, and it all started because he was fired from his works. I think Mr. Birling is not too concerned about the scandal Eva Smith / Daisy Renton. But I also think it takes maturity and responsibility, and show some remorse for his actions and what is shown when the exact words said above I would give thousands.Inspector creates moments of tension in the room, like when he stops and says good. He slowed his speech for the person to talk to their point, he does so skilfully to let them rifle what they have done. Currently, the public is at the edge of their seat because it is repeated continuously as happens throughout the piece. For example, in the first act ends so the word good is just perfect for creating a cliff hanging and JB Priestley, clearly demonstrated.Mrs. Birling I do not know anything about this girl.The Inspector seriously good, we shall see, Mrs. Birling. This then gives a chance to own before Inspector Goole to act on itself. However little we can hardly ever gives the public an idea of what is coming next.Inspector Goole is acting like a say in the moral history of Priestley and this is reflected in the chat of fence-viewers. It teaches that everyone is linked and we should all cooperate to make the world a better place.Thats when the speech begins, One Eva Smith has gone, but there are many more Eva Smith and John Smiths incumbently with us. This shows a contrast with the public good prospects in the hope of something. With their lives, their hopes and fears. This is a memorable phrase that will cotton up the dialogue, and it is also an example of three things listed. Continuing his final dialogue with all the confusing our presence, with what we do, believe and think with each other. It shows a most memorable phrasing which then leads to a positive impact on readers that we will be more committed. Also at the end of the convict, the list of three. This may be in minds of readers and their influence on socialism. We do not stay and live by ourselves, we are associates of a community as a whole, and we are responsible to each other. This is about as positive as it includes the word we, which makes the public to identify what is being said.In the last sentence of the Inspectors dialogue, he said, If men will not learn this lesson, the consequences are that fire, simple eye and anguish would be brought up against them. In this sentence the introduction of the first person singular is put forward to the audience he speaks like a shot with a serious tone towards what he says. In addition, some phrases are memorable, like fire and blood and anguish. They could be regarded as a soothsaying of two world wars yet to come that Priestley wrote the play to make a political point in ending the dialogue. In addition, this makes the game more inexplicable. The Inspector is considered a time traveler . As if he is a man who has traveled endure in time to tell everyone back in 1912 (when the room has been created), which is approaching here two world wars. This is another effect used by JB Priestley to recognize this game as a message to the people of the world. It can also be regarded as a time unit, where he went in the past and the story told in the future, this fender to intensify the effect. It then ends with Good Night which is a positive way to conclude his speech.To include to Priestleys voice, the character, Mr. Birling is presented as a sort of capitalistic slave and the Inspector is charged in the fight with him all the way by showing him as an increasingly negative influence. Probably a socialist when we, like most readers realize the problems in the book, then looking at a wider horizon, they can also be debated issues around the world who are currently in progress, For as we, as the Inspector said in his final speech. In addition, this greatly helps change the publics views on authorities and in giving them a slightly different viewpoi nt, like what is natural event on the planet we live now? Such as the current wars and other issues.In my opinion, Inspector Goole is the speech, not necessarily for the characters on stage, but the audience. It may be a bit of a fascinating dialogue because it is very well built and it persuades people to learn from their mistakes and act on them. Priestley has done an excellent job of putting ideas across most of them are very important points that are generally neglected in our periodic lives.I think the inspector is able to put the point across and Priestley that inhibits public attention, very well with his speech-making, and (Priestley) objectives have been successfully proposed.The Inspector is the shaper of all the tension and drama as well as the mystery in which this play has to offer, and he used incredibly well to capture the attention of the audience. I think Priestley, as done well using Inspector Goole as the main character in the play because of the schooling he has to shows throughout the many different scenarios. The whole piece concludes with a sense that has demonstrated very well that priests can be considered a moral of the play, which is that the actions of everyone affects everyone and no one should be selfish as this may have an effect on anyones personal lives greatly in a sequence of events.The Inspector makes the characters own up to their actions and reveal what he already seems to know, for example, towards the conclusion of the first act, when Gerald talks to Sheila about the time he spent with Daisy Renton last summer.At the exact moment this way, the characters will confess, Its as if they knew what was expected of them when they are wrong, because the Inspector is bluffing stories out bit by bit, only giving them one small bit of something, its as if he is starting a story and the Birlings are finishing it.The Inspector responds instantly to the reaction of Gerald also now knowing that Gerald had known and expecting that he can hide this fact from the Inspector.Its like in the beginning when they commence to understand that they all had something to do with the death of Eva Smith and the Inspector comes eye to eye with each of them and with all the knowledge they need he ends up coming down hard on them, because the Inspector wants to see that the family feel remorse for their actions.The Inspector also controls speech and movement on stage, for example, it controls speech as he admitted their connection with the death of Eva Smith, but he also controls the movement, for example at the beginning of the third act To include to Priestleys voice, the character, Mr Birling is presented as a sort of capitalist slave and the Inspector is charged in the fight with him all the way by showing him as an increasingly negative influence.I think Priestley, as done well using Inspector Goole as the main character in the play because of the development he has to shows throughout the many different scenariosI think the purpose of his visit was to show the family that theirlives and what they do during their life is far more influential than they realise, either positively or negatively. Had they helped EvaSmith, her life may not have been lost, but in fact, the Inspectors intention was to help them see where they went wrong and secure them on the right path if they were willing to respond. He wanted to aidthem in their understanding that in life there are huge decisions and choices to make which, if are chosen wrongly, can have devastating effects, not only for them but for other people . The reason the Police Inspector arrived here at the Birling household was to investigate a suicide. He seemed to already know everything that the family told him of the questions he was asking. It was as though he had been watching them for the past 10 or so years and knew everythingthat had gone on. It appears innocent, just routine blameless questioning.Sheila used her authority, coming from a wealthy fam ily, to get Eva Smith fired, I went to the manager at Milwards and I told him that if they didnt get rid of that girl, Id never go near the place again and Id persuade mother to close our account with them. When Sheila hears the news that Eva Smith has killed herself she is devastated. She looks at the photograph of Eva Smith, (recognizes it with a little cry, gives a half stifled sob, and then runs out). Her mood also changes and she starts to see things in a different perspective to try and understand the situation and her troth in it. She regrets what she has done and promises to never, never do it again to anybody. At this stage the audience sees Sheila as a very honest individual. She admits that she was overjealous and that her pride was insulted and that If shed been some miserable plain little creature, I dont suppose Id have done it. But she was very pretty. Eva Smith killed herself because she could not withstand the problems mounting in her life she had no money, no fri ends and no family. As Sheila observes everyones involvement in Eva Smiths downfall she begins to recognize the message behind Inspector Gooles visit to the Birling Family, Well he inspected us alright.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Assistive Technology On Disabled Students Impact Education Essay

helpful Technology On Disabled Students Impact upbringing EssayAbstractThis test proposes to modulate the tinct of assistive Technology (AT) on alter learners in in the south Afri push aside high institutions. The modify multitude in all(prenominal) ordering atomic number 18 primarily facing some enfeeble quandaries, including physical, emotional and physiological degradation. As a result, empowering hoi polloi with disabilities to realize their self-esteem as come up as enhance their skilling and employability represents an interesting and challenging task to government, industry, interest groups and individuals earthly concernwide. However, the rising assistive technology provides a unique opportunity to alleviate the challenges of people with disabilities. Exploiting this novel technology, our current coating is to moderate the bear upon of AT on alter students in southwest Afri hatful higher(prenominal) institutions. Randomized carry off group pre-test and post-test experimental visualize result be victimisation upd for strike determination. Cronbach of import volition be utilise to measure the reliability of the consumeive tellation solicited from participating students in a kind of participatory travel along. Bootstrapping statistics will be habitd to analyze the result of the experimental design and cor coincidence will be wasting diseased to discover relationship among data samples. As a case fill, we would like to validate our design utilise promiscuously selected students from University of Pretoria, Tshwane University of Technology and University of Witwatersrand, which due to their closeness to the look forers makes the education cost-effective. We argon desireful that our design would be systemic enough to be slow extrapolated into other institutions. The judge contributions of this strike be to (a) explore different types of AT gettable to handicapped students, (b) correspond the manipulatio nr-friendliness of the AT, (c) compargon the performance of modify students with non- incapacitate peers and (d) cast the impact of AT on disabled students in southward African higher institutions.Keywords Assistive Technology, disabilities, to the south Africa, disabled students1. IntroductionThe disabled people in any part of the world ar generally facing many debilitating quandaries and they are not experiencing the kind of comfort, dexterity and optimism that more or less non-disabled people enjoy. The consider of people with disabilities, continuous to insistently increase due to high pasture of accidents, natural disasters, diseases and increasing number of aging people. For instance, disabled people in southwestward Africa account for 5% (2255982) of the total population (Statistics southeasterly Africa, 2001), which retrieveing(a)ly outgrows the previous statistics of (please supply previous statistics.) and in many parts of the world, the humbug is sympathetic. As a result, the impact of having some to a greater extent people with disabilities in our society than ever before is immeasurable. The South African government has embarked on encouraging firsts to book more disabled South Africans obtain semi-formal information as a way to provide succour so that disabled people are better empowered in the society. For example, the Ministry of Education improvises that South African schools should provide AT assistances and equipments for disabled students to change a balanced (free and appropriate) public education. These initiatives make the hold of AT much relevant in our schools be it higher or lower institutions of learning.An emerge AT is any mobile device or infrastructure that can be use to maintain or improve the capabilities of individuals with disabilities (IDEA, 1990). With careful homework and guidance, the vast number of AT devices and software can be potentially beneficial to disabled students (Duhaney Duhaney, 2000). AT can enable people who are suffering from a wide range of natural disabilities to enjoy more comfortable lives. These technologies are being utilise at home, schools, work places and in any case in communities as a whole by disabled people (Howell, 1996). The use of AT is allowing people with disabilities to be more independent, productive, self-confident and for them to easily integrate into the mainstream society. The technology, for example, can enable a student with physically damage hands or arms to be able to operate a computer with a switch or an onscreen keyboard, a mute student to communicate development a device that speaks and a student who cannot walk can be assisted to do so with specialised automatonlike devices (Mirenda, 2001).As a result, the impact of AT on disable students in South Africa is undoubtedly enormous. Moreover, not only is AT beneficial for education method and learning purpose, the living style of disabled students can be greatly improved socia lly by allowing them, for instance to play games and communicate fluently. However, many issues and obstacles such as lack of AT knowledge, training, funding, poor coordination between service providers and technology developers as well as fear of these technologies are hindering the successful application of AT in the society at large. That is why this poll proposes to evaluate the impact of AT on disable students in South African higher institutions.1.1. Problem Statement and search QuestionsToday, the sterling(prenominal) challenge confronting the South African students with disabilities is to smoothly integrate into the society, participate in a competitive educational system and be equipped for the professional person economic world. A number of emerging technologies assistive and alterive shake off been developed to cater for disabled students. But, very little books has been write about these novel technologies. Additionally, the evaluation of their impact on the end -users has also not been widely underwriteed. One way to guarantee best outcomes for disabled students in South Africa would be to evaluate the impact of AT on these students. To do so, different types of AT would beat to be identified and equal opportunities would induct be given to disabled and non-disabled students to compete. Thus, a participatory interrogation is needful to determine the impact of AT on disabled students in South Africa.The main seek capitulum to solve in this essay is what is the impact of AT on disabled students in South Africa?To resolving power this question satis featureorily, first it is important to trace various AT forthcoming and determine their contributions towards improving the donnish performance of disabled students in South Africa. As result, following investigate sub-questions will be squarely addressed in order to solve the main look into question.What are the different types of AT are operable to disabled students?How user frie ndly are the available AT to disabled students?Does AT smoothly integrate disabled and non-disabled students?Does the use of AT improves the academic performance of disabled students?How is AT used by disabled students to comfort social networking?What influence is AT performing in the life of disabled students?1.2. Goals and targets of the StudyThe core goal of this study to determine the impact of Assistive Technology (AT) on disabled students in South African higher institutions. This could help to uncover some unresolved issues introduced by disabled students on the impact of AT in their learning environments. This goal will be accomplished by implementing the following primary designs.To identify different types of AT that are available to disabled students in South African higher institutions.To determine the user-friendliness of the available AT to disabled students in South African higher institutions.To determine whether the use of AT smoothly integrates disabled students with non-disabled students.To determine whether the use of the AT improves academic performance of disabled students in South African higher institutions.To determine how is AT used by disabled students to facilitate social networking.To determine the influence that AT is playing in the life of disabled students?1.3. Expected DeliverablesWithin a 2 year project leading to an award of MTec degree, it is important to ensure that in that location are clear expectations for what can be delivered in these timescales. We bank to deliver the following.A comprehensive account of disabled students learning experiences and a clear documentation of the impact of AT on disabled students.A set of recommendations for practitioners, arrest staff, institutional managers and program developers on ways to manage the challenges of disabled students in the society.2. Literature ReviewMost of the recent belles-lettres condenseing on the impact of ICT on students in Universities across the world ca n be classified into three sourcesLiterature and case studies that have been developed from publicly funded studies to determine the impact of AT in higher education exist in academic domains and are mostly inform of case studies (e.g. Skills for Access, DART, ALERT).Other studies that actualize this allow in Seale(2006).Research studies that have explored the general education experiences of disabled students exist in both academic and non-academic domains (e.g. BBC, OUCH, SKILL). Other studies that support this hold (Mortimer Crosier, 2006), Shelving et al. 2004 and (Fuller et al. 2004).Research studies that have explored the specific e-learning experiences of disabled students Have generally been conducted in the UK,an example of this is Draffan et al. (2007) in a survey of the use of and mirth with AT by disabled students in UK higher institutions. Another survey by Cobham et al. (2001) also tried to explain the specific experiences of disabled students when using AT.The im portant conclusion from these studies is whether their findings are true for all students, particularly the disabled students who may need emerging technology such as AT effective learning?The unique novelty of this study in relation to these studies listed above are abvious.With the use of participatory research methods, this study shall (a) be a voice for the disabled students (b) get raw (first hand) information from the uses themselves. This enables to answer the paradigm of Nothing about me, without me since the users are involved in every phase of this study. The important conclusion from these studies is whether their findings are true for all students, especially the disabled students who may need emerging technology such as AT effective learning?In particular, some of the most significant change in the education of students with disabilities in South Africa has been the initiative to adapt the comprehensive education theory into their education system (Patton, 1992). Thi s form of initiative is chiefly a collaborative setting that includes a content specialist paired with a learning specialist and then leads to sharing of the teaching responsibilities, which will later benefit the education of all students. The use of inclusive education may change from one institution to other, but it distinctly indicates that it is extremely important as enabler for students to achieve their ultimate educational goals. The rapid developments in innovative ICT infrastructure, particularly in the field of AT rekindles the hope and aspiration for those who have so long been deprived of opportunities with which life has weight down them visual impairment, physical damage, hearing impairment and Communication impairments (Levin Scharffenberger, 1990). More importantly, disability is being recognized as a social construct created by ability-oriented and ability-dominated environments.Traditional methods for studying the impacts of AT on disabled students in South African higher education includes (a) interviews, (b) questionnaire surveys and (c) focus groups. However, in recent time, there has been a need to develop methods and practices that enable the student voice to be more focus on AT studies (Levin Scharffenberger, 1990). However, it should be clarified that efforts to include disabled students in studies of the impact of AT in the learning environments may need new alternative methods besides the traditional methods. Researcher can draw their learner-centred AT research studies from two related filed methods to analyse the impact of AT on disabled students in universities, these include (a) participatory design and (b) participatory research. These methods are commonly used for designing AT and to interconnected the related fields of user-centred design, co-design and inclusive design (Hanson, et al., 2007). Participatory design fit in was defined as the involvement of disabled students throughout the entire phases of the study ( Hanson et al. 2007). This study involves (a) working directly with the disabled students to fully participate in the study from phase one throughout to last phase, (b) involving the real disabled students in their real contexts, ignoring window dressing to keep the deficiencies of their school secret, (c) a continuous cycle of development and evaluation phases until both the researcher and research participants (disabled student in this case) reach an agreed solution, (d) dual participation between participants (disabled students) and designers in development of key AT methodologies. The benefits of participatory design methods are obvious when researching intensive study on the disabled students and how they use these technologies in daily activities (Davies et al. 2004). The strong in-depth analysis offered by such methods appears to be extremely applicable to research studies focusing on hearing the student voice.This study, then nominates participatory methods to be used to ex plore the impact of AT on disabled students in three higher education institutions in South Africa, taking three universities (a) University of Pretoria, (b) University of Witwatersrand and (c) Tshwane University of Technology as a case study. This study advocates that there is the need for research to be written from the disabled students spatial relation and that is why participatory research is an appropriate approach for this study. Although most of the educators in south Africa are trying to make sure that the disabled students use the same technology as non-disabled, it has been hard for the disabled students to deal with the fact that most of the software being developed do not arrest the aspect of inclusive education and design for all (Fischer, 1995).Research throw and MethodologyThe methodology of this study will try to demonstrate how the use of participatory methods of research will be used to show how the goals and objectives and problems questions of this study were retrievet. The most common forms of participatory methods are by use of interview plus, questionnaires and focus groups.The first objective (to identify different types of AT that are available to disabled students in South African higher institutions.), this study shall design a template of various AT from different literature study on AT. This AT template is then presented to the research participants (disabled students) to film what are the different types of assistive technologies they are currently using.The second objectives (to determine the user-friendliness of the available AT to disabled students in South African higher institutions), this study proposes to include in the questionnaire a question that enables the disabled students to select one option from 1-10 how user friendly they think the AT they are using are. The higher the number, the more use-friendly that participant encounters about that AT.The third objective (to determine whether the use of the AT improves academic performance of disabled students in South African higher institutions), this study proposes, after ethical cheering has been granted from the various university, this study shall ask the University Authorities to provide academic transcripts of the research participants, to see if using these ATs have helped them improve on their academics.The quartern objective (to determine how is AT used by disabled students to facilitate social networking), this study proposes with the use of a questionnaire and interview plus, the research participants will be asked to choose or list the social networks that they are using at that current state and how much easier ATs have helped these students while using these social networks.The fifth objective (to determine the influence that AT is playing in the life of disabled students), this study proposes to have a controlled and experimental sample of participants. Since the South African government encourages the use of inclusive design, m ost of the ATs are used by both the disabled students and their non-disabled peers. During the interviews and answering of questionnaire, the research participants shall be asked to list how they feel ATs have helped them both negative and prescribed responses shall be encouraged. Thus study will encourage these participants to even include non-academic influences of ATs on them.The focus group and interview plus shall be mainly used when the participants and answering to the questionnaire. These forms of participatory research methods shall also be used to enable the research participants to provide any additional information that they feel that this study might have left out.This study shall during the first focus group meeting provide each research participant with the proposed questions that this study intends to use. Each participant shall be asked to first tick which questions they feel are relevant to this study. Using an excel sheet, every question shall be listed in one co lumn and another column video display how many students have chosen a particular question. This number is then divided by the total number of research participants to determine the mean score. The higher the mean score, the more relevant a question is to this study. The same format shall be used when deterring the best relevant data parade tool to use. These mean scores can also be classified as alpha scores.3.1 Overview of data collection toolsThe data collection tools that will be used in this project consist of (a) interview plus (b) questionnaire and (c) focus groups. The use of these tools is not unique to research that uses a participatory approach several(prenominal) general studies of disabled students in higher education have sedulous these methods. However, what is unique about the use of these data collection tools in this study is that participation influenced the nature and focus of each tool4. confinement scheme4.1 Summarised bedevil PlanWORKPACKAGES attestApril mayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovember inaugural/Project PlanningCommunicationQuestionnaireStudent recruitment Phase 1 all inclusivePhase 2 purposive data collectionData AnalysisEvaluation /ReportingTable 1Project Plan4.2 Master Project PlanWork package and natural processOutputsStart dateEnd DateWORKPACKAGE 1 Startup/Project Planning object To provide project management for the project1. pee-pee project plan, workpackages, and dissemination plan.march on-going2.Reading of project material collection literature from library and internet showOngoing2. Choose of University to useList of UniversityMarchMarch3. Write Chapter OnePresentation of intentMarchJuneWORKPACKAGE 2 CommunicationObjective Maintain communication with Cordinator, and outdoor(a) interested parties team up Communication with CordinatorMinutes of meetings/emails weeklyMarchOngoingAcademic and Student Services Staff University ofMinutes of meetings/emails weeklyMarchOngoingExternal interested parties (Disabil ity South Africa)Minutes of meetings/emails weeklyMarchOngoingFocus GroupsMinutes of meetings/emails weeklyJulyOngoingWORKPACKAGE QuestionnaireObjective give way questions that will answer the Goals and ObjectivesDevelopement of Assisitve Technology Types QuestionnaireQuestionaireMayMayDevelopement of Goals and Objectives related questionsQuestionnaireMayJuneRevised Chapter OneHand in Research Proposal(Chapter One)JuneJulyWORKPACKAGE 3 disabled Student recruitment Phase 1 all inclusiveObjective Participation of max available of disabled studentsStudent Services support and Ethics CommitteAcceptance of outline questions and support of projectJulyJuly(Re)formulate interview questions with disabled studentsPilot / Questionnaire acceptable to participants and evaluation of changes made.JulyAugustData Analysis from sign questionnaires and contact with students from Phase 1Analysis and report on outcomes of sign questionnaire, e-mails and discussions with students.AugustAugustWORKP ACKAGE 4 Phase 2 purposiveObjective Recruitment of students who agreed to participate during Phase 1Participatory research of methodology initial discussions,on-going evaluation and implementationAnalysis and report on MethodologiesAugustSeptemberInterviews/ participation/development of artefactsAnalysis of interviews summary reportSeptemberSeptemberWORKPACKAGE 5 Data collectionObjective dogmatic Storage and re-formatting of dataCollection of Data from participantsRaw data available to teamSeptemberSeptemberAccessible Multimedia artefactsData available to team with captions, text descriptions, etc.SeptemberSeptemberWORKPACKAGE 6 Data AnalysisObjective Evaluation of all the data and other artefacts amassAnalysis of interview data from Phase 2Synopsis of transcripts veritable by individual participantSeptemberOctoberAnalysis of all artefacts provided by participantsAgreement with participants, as to which artefacts are used for dissemination.OcotoberOctoberAnalysis of all away the data gathered in relation to the project.Agreement with team as to inclusion of external data relating to the project e.g. accessibility guidelines etc.OctoberOctoberWORKPACKAGE 7 Evaluation /ReportingObjective Evaluation of methodologies used and completion of feeler and final reportsProgress reportDraft to Advisory Group and Team Itemised report of progress to dateOctoberNovemberFinal evaluation of the questions used and Research Question ReportDraft summary report detailing how the research questions have been addressed and drawing out lessons learned from the particular institutional contextOctoberNovemberMethodology Critique and analysisDraft report of a critique of the chosen methodologyNovemberNovemberRecommendations/Guidelines on impact of the use of Assistive TechnologiesDraft recommendations and guidance for practitioners, support staff, institutional managers, learners, content providers, instructional designers, good and program developersNovemberNovemberFINAL THES ISHand in final research paperNovemberNovemberTable 2Master Project Plan showing the activities that will be involved